Saturday, January 18, 2020

A short story that is written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Essay

This is a short story that is written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. At the time in which this short but very good story was written it was one of the first detective fiction story. This review of it will guide you through why it is a typical but very well written story. It includes the most famous detective in the world and is still a household name to this very day. The detectives name is Sherlock Holmes and has been written and read about for a number of decades. The main frame of the story is a lady called Helen Stoner who is worried about her life and comes to Sherlock for help and advice. Holmes with his partner Doctor Watson investigates Helens sisters death and hopes to find out the reason for this sinister crime. After looking and analysing the story it is evident that it has the right ingredients for a good detective fiction story. The ingredients that have been well placed into the story are a good opening. The opening starts with Sherlock waking up to his companion Watson and explaining that he is needed as a client is in deep worry. The other essential ingredients are drama, suspense a heroine or a such as Holmes as the hero and Helen stoner as the heroine. Detail is important in every story and detective fiction is no exception. Without detail the reader cannot properly understand what the situation the detective is in. Also the story has to have a good ending to it or maybe a twist like â€Å"The Speckled Band† does. The twist in this is totally unexpected as the killer is the father. The most important ingredients to a story, which I think is essential to the reader, are characters with good and believable characteristics. Without this ingredient the story is simply not a story. The reader has almost to know the character and then when this is accomplished they read on knowing that the person will follow the description that they have been given by the author. A good example of this is Dr Roylett. The words that are used here give a basic impression of him. â€Å"violence of temper†, ferocious quarrels with whoever might cross his path†, â€Å"shut himself up in his house†. From reading these statements the reader can imagine that this Roylett man will be any help with Holmes investigation. If they read on from here then they find out that he is not.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Define Thesis Statement Stories

The Define Thesis Statement Stories Expressing your own personal position isn't enough for a superior research paper. One other important lesson you're likely to learn from good thesis statement definition and examples readily available online is the need to thoroughly assess the central supporting line to make certain it aligns with the intention of the paper and the prompt. The type of thesis statement included in the paper determines the standard of the paper. A thesis statement is a brief, usually one sentence-long claim written close to the start of your paper, which acts as a point of reference, a roadmap or a compass for the entire paper. A thesis statement can be in one, two or even 3 sentences at the conclusion of the conclusion, based on the amount of your paper and the essence of your argument. It is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Thus in the instance of all thesis statements, valid arguments should be present to support the major point of the essay. Both the argument and your thesis are very likely to require adjustment on the way. A lot of the moment, your thesis statement will be in the very start of your essay, possibly at the conclusion of the very first paragraph. A succinct overview of what you need to say about that topic. Simply fill in the blanks regarding the subject of your essay and that which you plan to prove and you're done. Before going into the matter, you want to understand what a persuasive essay is. Do write, Americans should eliminate the normal consumption of fast food because the speedy food diet contributes to preventable and pricey health problems, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. For instance, you can create a thesis statement that's linked to health. You can't possibly cover all the considerable consequences of global warming, which means that your reader should know on which ones that you mean to focus. Veganism A vegan diet, though a healthful and ethical approach to c onsume food, indicates a place of privilege. You should agree it is simpler to produce the thesis statement of the paper when the remainder of the pieces are written than attempting to connect each paragraph with another topic sentence to the primary argument. It's important to get an in depth understanding of the ideas that you are likely to mention in your essay. The topic shouldn't be old or broad. Narrowing down your subject of discussion lets you focus primarily on the job at hand. Using the expression statement' often confuses students into thinking that the claim must be put in 1 sentence. One of the primary qualities of a thesis statement is the fact that it always offers an answer to a particular question and does so transparently and succinctly. Issued in a sentence or two towards the conclusion of the introduction, the claim stipulates a unifying theme for the whole text. There's a reason for it. Just like any great thesis, you wish to get as specific as possi ble. A thesis are found in virtually every form of academic and professionally written text. It can be included at the start of the paper. Understanding how to compose a research paper thesis is the key step. You are able to bet that we double check our essays so that you know you will get original work every moment. Academic essays aren't mystery novels which use suspense as a means to continue to keep readers glued. In fact, a seasoned writer can get the job done much faster than any student as they've been writing academic assignments during their entire life. Yes, there's somebody who can aid you with your essays expert essay writers at MyPerfectWords. Broadly speaking, when there's a writing assignment, a teacher or professor will offer more time for research a couple of weeks. Writing in college often requires the shape of persuasionconvincing others that you've got an interesting, logical viewpoint on the subject you're studying. Brainstorming is among the best thi ngs a student can do in order to choose the wonderful idea and develop a corresponding statement. The reason your teachers wish to critique the thesis is so they can make certain you're writing something which is right for your skill and school. An informative essay is most likely the toughest sort of assignment that should be accomplished with absolute care and concern. The claim made in the statement ought to be something which other people may argue against. Further analyze the center of your topic and focus on very specific regions of European travel which you can realistically cover and support with good evidence. You will use evidence from your studying to show the point you're making. You have to have a statement that isn't just easy to comprehend, but one that's debatable. Fortunately, despite what you might have been told, writing a thesis statement is in fact incredibly straightforward. Among several things, first, you have to think of a potent racism thesis state ment. Whenever someone reads your thesis statement, they ought to get a feeling of what your paper is all about and what, if any, slant or argument you've got. A thesis statement is comprised of a couple of sentences that summarize the gist of your findings and explain what the point of your paper is. Research is an essential part of any college program. Students should avoid such firms since they provide low superior services and also impact their grades.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Highly Discussed Topic Cloning - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 995 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/08/08 Category Science Essay Level High school Tags: Cloning Essay Did you like this example? Despite the wide debates, very few actually know and argue the facts about cloning. To clone a horse, or any animal, cells need to be taken from a donor. Usually, these cells are appropriated from the ears or chest of the animal. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Highly Discussed Topic: Cloning" essay for you Create order After these cells are retrieved, they have several different options for destinations. They can be placed into a nucleus-lacking, unfertilized egg or genetically engineered into an embryo. Once that step is finalized, they are either jolted with a pulse of electricity to start cell division or they are frozen for later use. The ones that have begun to divide are usually placed into a surrogates or hosts uterus to continue on in normal gestation. They also can be used to cultivate organ tissues. The first clone was produced in 1997 and is known as Dolly the Sheep. Then, in 2003, a horse and 3 mules were successfully cloned in a similar style as Dolly. In 2013, not too long ago, Dr. Shoukhart Mitalipov stated that cloning these days is just a science project. This lead many to believe that it would never evolve into anything worthwhile. In todays world, very little cloning is actually taking place. Some scientist have begun to attempt to clone endangered species to try to preserve them . Many scientists claim that cloning could affect the future of medicines, tissue regeneration, embryology, cancer treatments, and solutions for infertility, to name just a few. Cloning has 2 main methods. The first is how Dolly the sheep was created. DNA is taken from skin cells of a donor, put into an egg without a nucleus, charged with an electrical pulse to start cell division, and then placed into a host uterus to develop in normal gestation. The second way is when DNA is taken from skin cells then genetically engineered back into an embryotic state. The embryo is either placed into an animal to grow into a fetus or is grown into different types of tissues t be used later on. Todays technology could morph into infertility solutions, but numerous scientists argue that it is too unpredictable and unsafe to perform on humans. Equine communities are slowly starting to accept cloned animals into sporting events, but many competitors are still against this new exception to the old rules. The world has the technology to clone nearly anything and everything ;however, ethics, morals, and safety always come into question. Most would agree that it needs to have im proved accuracy and stability before it goes any further. If the word cloning were to be spoken in any given conversation, many would agree that it corresponds directly to money, specifically large amounts of it. Since so many animals have been cloned, there is a sizeable range of costs. Some of the cheapest cloning methods involve pets, more specifically, cats and dogs. They range anywhere from $25,000 to $50,000. To most, that amount of money could be equivalent to the price of a small used car! Coming in at around $40,000 is cattle. Cattle is usually not a choice to be cloned because of their low value, other than for meat or genetics purposes. Horses are one of the biggest industries of cloning, because of their variety of uses and general value. In Texas, a company claims to be able to clone a horse to produce a live foal for $150,000! That is the price of a decent sized home for many Americans! Most of the horses cloned at that facility are champion horses. This is mainly done to pass on genetics when a geldings sperm was not saved before castration. Human cloning has been estimated to cost upwards of $2 million dollars! However, because it hasnt been achieved, the price is just an approximation. Many frown upon the costs of cloning because of the time-to-cost ratio. It takes a prolonged amount of time for a product to result for the amount of money that it costs to produce a clone. Also, the system does not have a 100% guarantee, meaning that large investment could be wasted money. Personally, I think cloning is a poor definition choice for what is actually being done. Technically, an exact copy offspring can not be resulted because of the workings of DNA. However, I do see the benefits of cloning technologies in the medicinal fields. Infertility is a big tabooed topic these days, mainly because many dont understand it and there arent many solutions to the numerous problems. Also, cancer has affected many people on this earth, so if cloning can either reduce those numbers or eliminate them completely, the medicinal world will be majorly befitted. I feel these subjects should only be approached with cloning when it safety, morality, and techniques are perfected to protect everyone and everything involved. On the topic of infertility, I also believe that designer babies should not be allowed. Parents, no matter how desperate they be, should not be allowed to design their own offspring. It makes it seem as if they are trying to play God. As far as livestock, I am on the fence. I can see the benefit of cloning in horses and endangered species to preserve blood lines and keep certain genetics going, but it appears to be meaningless otherwis e. Pets may seem like a member of the family to some owners, but I wouldnt go as far as cloning them to have the same pet again. Clones, in my opinion, should not be allowed to compete in sporting events like rodeos or showing events. It seems like a loophole to cheating, despite the new rules condoning it. In conclusion, cloning will always be a highly debated topic, and, despite technological advances, morality, ethics, and safety will always need to be questioned. I have no doubt that cloning can change the world, for the better at least. Until then, we as humans cannot allow ourselves to play the role of God. Science, as many other subjects, needs to have its limits and scientists need to know where to draw their lines.

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Kate Chopins The Awakening Essay - 1350 Words

Kate Chopins The Awakening Kate Chopin’s novel The Awakening expresses the difficulty of finding a woman’s place in society. Edna learns of new ideas such as freedom and independence while vacationing in Grand Isle. Faced with a choice to conform to society’s expectations or to obey personal desires for independence, Edna Pontellier realizes that either option will result in dissatisfaction. Thus, Edna’s awakening in Grand Isle leads to her suicide. Edna’s awakening occurs during her family’s vacation in Grand Isle. It is here that she learns to freely express herself and be unreserved in her behavior and speech. Through the Creole women, Edna becomes free from the chains that bind her to societal expectations. Adele†¦show more content†¦The two main women in Edna’s life serve as foils of each other and static characters to which Edna can compare. Adele Ratignole presents the ideal, socially-accepted woman figure. She exemplifies all that is perfect: devoted wife seeking only to please her spouse, loving mother, knowledgeable, conventional, â€Å"mother-woman,† elegant, charming, simple, and servant to both her family and society. Completely opposite of the dependent woman is Mademoiselle Reisz who personifies all that Adele would disgust. Reisz remains isolated from society, shunned as a recluse for her passion of music. She is unpopular, solitary, unmarried, childless, but also coura geous, passionate, independent, inspired, and free. The two figures rest on polar ends of a societal spectrum. This distance creates a horrific gap within which Edna finds herself. Edna identifies with both women, having qualities and tendencies of each. This dual connection complicates Edna’s identity; she cannot fully embody either woman type while she possesses qualities of the other. Edna remains in a situation in which success cannot be achieved. Edna’s awakening allows the two distinct female models of society to become clear, and her awakening causes her to feel unable to conform to either model. Edna’s arousal is that which opens her eyes to see her potential apart from her current life. Spending time in Grand Isle unveils a newShow MoreRelatedThe Awakening on Kate Chopins The Awakening1745 Words   |  7 Pages The time period of the 1880s that Kate Chopin lived in influenced her to write The Awakening, a very controversial book because of many new depictions of women introduced in the book. The Awakening is a book about a woman, Edna Pontellier. In the beginning, she is a happy woman with her husband and 2 kids vacationing at Grand Isle. While there, Edna realizes she is in love with Robert Lebrun and that she was just forced into an unloving/dissatisfying marriage with Mr. Pontellier. Robert howeverRead MoreKate Chopins The Awakening1767 Words   |  8 Pageswith experimentation and exploration, followed by personal acceptance, and finally, although not always, societal acceptance. Although we have come a long way on the path of acceptance of different sexual transgressions, the stories of Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, Tennessee Williams’ â€Å"Vieux Carre,† and Lyle Saxon’s â€Å"The Centaur Plays Croquet† show that this type of acceptance has not alwa ys been the case. Each story plays an integral role when looking at the steps on the path to societal acceptanceRead MoreKate Chopins The Awakening1871 Words   |  8 Pagesworshipping her children and submitting to her husband. Kate Chopins novel, The Awakening, encompasses the frustrations and the triumphs in a womans life as she attempts to cope with these strict cultural demands. Defying the stereotype of a mother-woman, Edna battles the pressures of 1899 that command her to be a subdued and devoted housewife. Although Ednas ultimate suicide is a waste of her struggles against an oppressive society, The Awakening supports and encourages feminism as a way for womenRead More Kate Chopin’s The Awakening Essay4153 Words   |  17 PagesKate Chopin’s The Awakening Kate Chopin’s The Awakening should be seen as depicting the discontentment that comes from self-gratification rather than the glorification of delighting in one’s fantasies. Chopin describes the central idea of one who is seeking to please her personal needs and desires and, in the process, neglects to notice how her actions affect others. The protagonist, Edna, is not able to find peace or happiness in the accepted daily life that a woman of her era and socialRead MoreKate Chopins The Awakening1176 Words   |  5 PagesIn Kate Chopin, â€Å"The Awakening†, longing for passion and freedom Edna Pontellier leaves the safety of her gilded cage, only to find that death is her only salvation. In the 1800’s the main role in society for a female was to be a wife and mother, women at this time were the property of their husbands and had little say in anything. Which for Edna was the opposite of what she wanted, she wanted to be free from these responsibilit ies and to live her own life. Although Edna is not a victim in theRead More Kate Chopins Awakening Essay1448 Words   |  6 PagesKate Chopins Awakening Kate Chopins depiction of â€Å"The Awakening† is realistic as she develops Edna Pontellier’s character from a socially and morally respectable individual to an individual that turns her back on everything closest to her as she births her new self-being. Edna Pontellier struggles between her subconscious and conscious thoughts as unusual feelings stir unfounded emotions and senses. Some of Chopin’s characters lend themselves in Edna’s â€Å"awakening†. Through examination of LeonceRead MoreEssay on Kate Chopins The Awakening1246 Words   |  5 PagesKate Chopins The Awakening In Kate Chopins, The Awakening, Edna Pontellier came in contact with many different people during a summer at Grand Isle. Some had little influence on her life while others had everything to do with the way she lived the rest of her life. The influences and actions of Robert Lebrun on Edna led to her realization that she could never get what she wanted, which in turn caused her to take her own life. In the Creole culture, outward affection and expressionRead More Kate Chopin’s The Awakening - The Feminist Awakening Essay2094 Words   |  9 PagesThe Feminist Awakening    Women’s rights have evolved over time; beginning with being homemakers and evolving to obtaining professions, acquiring an education, and gaining the right to vote. The movement that created all these revolutionary changes was called the feminist movement. The feminist movement occurred in the twentieth century. Many people are not aware of the purpose of the feminist movement. The movement was political and social and it sought to set up equality for women. Women’s groupsRead MoreFemale Empowerment in Kate Chopins The Awakening7915 Words   |  32 PagesHeinrich-Heine-Università ¤t Wintersemester 2010/11 Vertiefungsmodul Kurs: American Realism and Naturalism - Short Stories Seminarleiter: Georg Schiller Datum der Abgabe: 16.04.2011 Female Empowerment in Kate Chopin’s â€Å"The Awakening† Anjana Dhir BA Englisch KF, Geschichte NF 3. Semester Table of Contents 1. Introduction 3 2. The FrenchRead More The Shocking Ideas of Kate Chopins The Awakening1864 Words   |  8 PagesIdeas of The Awakening Ideas that resist existing social boundaries commonly are rejected at first, because people don’t want to wake up from their reliable lives. Kate Chopin, however, believed that an awakening was in order, and she attempted to open the eyes of society through her novel The Awakening. The public’s reaction to Chopin’s novel was not one of acceptance. Too strong a drink for moral babies, and should be labeled ‘poison,’ was the how the Republic described Chopins work (Seyersted

Monday, December 16, 2019

Article Review on the China Road for Peace Free Essays

Zheng’ Bijian is the current chairman of the China Reform Forum and until 2002 when he retired he was the executive Vice President of the Central Party School committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC). Zheng’ Bijian was born in 1932 in Fushun which is in Sichuan province. Zheng’ holds a masters in political economics from the People’s University of China. We will write a custom essay sample on Article Review on the China Road for Peace or any similar topic only for you Order Now Well known for his involvement in research, Zheng has been actively involved in research for the government as well as the Communist party of China (CPC). Zheng’ became a personal secretary to Hu Yaobang who was the General Secretary then. Zheng’ worked for CPC central committee as the publicity department deputy director between 1992 and 1997. Zheng has initiated major policy themes in china including the ‘Peaceful rise of China’ which aims at developing China in a peaceful manner while incorporating Sino- European relations. He insisted that China needed to yield peaceful international relations even as it relied on its own strength for development. The foreign policies center The 48 Group Club is an independent network formed in early 1950s which promotes business links with China. It was formed after the first westerners commonly known as the icebreakers formed successful trade relations with China. 48 Group Club currently has over three hundred members in form of political leaders and businesses. The group networks events mostly related to advancement business to interested institutions and managers. Most organizations that participate are those leading in the development of China Business for British Organizations. The group is known to hold talks and business related conferences aimed at improving business relations and activities. 48 Group Club holds lectures which allow senior business official and government official alike to exchange views and discuss important issues. The group also holds receptions for visiting delegates to china and those from the private sector during their stay. Zheng’s speech. The road for peaceful rise encompasses ten points that are meant to assist China evolves into a world power through development and civilization as it maintains peace in China as well as the rest of the world. Building international relationships is key during the process. They intend to build friendships with other countries while promoting trustworthiness and harmony. China’s road for peaceful rise will ensure that the people of China have decent and dignified life. The country undertakes to improve economic development through acquisition of resources which will in turn increase production. Economic globalization is to be achieved through co-operation with other countries avoiding oppression through colonialization or forceful acquisition of resources from other countries. The peaceful rise will make use of the socialist system which has a domestic policy of developing productivity while the foreign policy aims at promoting peace. Promotion of industrialization and civilization are also vital as China strives to make a new image for its country. Modern civilization is going to be promoted through new patterns of industrialization to build a harmonious socialist society. The road of peaceful rise aims at furthering foreign relations through development of Sino-European and Sino-UK relations. China realizes the importance of such relations and intends to participate in international endeavors such as fighting terrorism and fighting weapons of mass destruction. China hopes to benefit from these relations by promoting economy, education, trade and finance. Learning from the developed countries like Europe and UK to help in tackling problems comes in handy in this peaceful rise. China will make use of European countries which are more developed to assist it in sorting certain problems. How to cite Article Review on the China Road for Peace, Papers

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Business Economics Neoclassical Business Theory

Question: Describe about the Business Economics for Neoclassical Business Theory. Answer: Topic-1 Value of the firm is calculated by measuring current value of cost flows of profits of the firm over several years in the future. However, it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of value maximization in the neoclassical theory of the firm. However, it is considered as the essential core of the neoclassical theory of the firm. It helps to maximize the total market value of the firm thereby, maximizing social welfare of the firm. Value of the firm = Present value of expected future profits Value maximization is considered as a useful descriptive theory that helps to describe the behavior of a firm. The value of the firm is considered as the wealth of a shareholder that is given by the current value of all anticipated future profits of the firm. The key objective is to maximize the value of the firm that includes the wealth of shareholders. Subject to the several constraints, a firm seeks to maximize its marginal profits (Deng, Kang and Low 2013). Topic-2 The factors other than price impacts demand in the following way: Tastes and Preferences: It is considered as one of the most imperative factor that determines the demand for goods. In other words, if customers have higher preferences for a particular good, the demand for the good will be higher. The change in demand mostly takes place due to changes in fashion as well as types of advertisements. Income of the people: If the income of the people is high, the demand for the product will also increase. In other words, the greater the income of an individual, the greater will be the demand for a product. Greater income also signifies greater purchasing power of an individual. As a result, if income of an individual increase, they can afford to purchase more. On the other hand, if income of an individual decreases the demand for goods will also decrease (Bowen and Sosa 2014). The number of customers in the market: The market demand for a particular product depends on the addition of the individual demand. The larger the number of customers in the market, the greater will be the demand for a product. As a result, the sellers become profitable as succeed to find out new markets for his commodity. The two terms, change in quantity demanded and change in demand are two dissimilar perceptions in economics. On one hand, change in quantity demanded indicates the changes in quantity purchased. On the other hand, change in demand indicates the rise or fall in demand of a manufactured goods due to several determinants of demand, keeping price constant. The movement of the demand curve can calculate change in quantity demanded. However, changes in demand are calculated by shifts in demand curve. Change in quantity demanded is characterized by development and reduction of demand. Expansion of demand refers to the stage when quantity demanded is more due to fall in prices of a commodity. On the other hand, reduction of demand occurs when quantity demanded is less due to increase in the price of a good (Phlips 2014). Figure 1: Expansion and contraction of demand (Source: Created by Author) The diagram shows that when price changes from P to P1, the demand curve also gets shifted from Q1 to Q2. P denotes the equilibrium price whereas; the equilibrium quantity is denoted Similarly, change in demand is characterized by increase or decrease in demand that takes place due to changes in several factors such as change in income as well as change in taste and preference of a customer. Figure 2: Increase or decrease in demand (Source: Created by Author) The diagram shows that the movement from to D to D1 indicates increase in demand, whereas; the movement from to D1 to D indicates decrease in demand. Topic-4 The law of diminishing returns is described as the law of economics that states a rising number of new workers cause the marginal product of a different worker to be smaller as compared to the marginal commodity of the previous worker at the similar point. It states that in all productive procedures, the addition of more of one factor of production will at some point bring subordinate incremental per-unit return. Diminishing returns takes place mostly in the short run when capital is fixed. On the other hand, if the variable factor is augmented, it leads to a point where the factors become less productive. As a result, there will be a decreasing marginal product. Diminishing returns is mostly related to the short-run higher SRAC. On the other hand, diseconomies of scale are related to the long-run. It also takes place when increased output leads to an increase in LRAC. One of the good examples of diminishing returns is that of chemical fertilizers. A small amount of chemical fertiliz ers leads to a large amount of output. On the other hand, the further usage of chemical fertilizers will lead to diminishing marginal product as the effectiveness of the chemical diminishes. Another example is that of a caf. In other words, a caf may desire to serve more individuals during the busy months of summer. However, hiring extra employees may lead to difficulties due to lack of space in the caf (Real 2013). Figure 3: Law of diminishing returns (Source: Created by Author) The graph shows that as labor usage rises from L to L1, total output gets increased by the amount shown in the figure. On the other hand, if usage of labor is increased by the similar amount again, output increases by lesser amount. This indicates that the diminishing marginal returns to the use of labor as an input. The diagram shows that the marginal product of labor is diminishing all over to the right of point A. The defining characteristics of diminishing marginal returns indicate that with the augment in total investment, the total return on investment as a proportion of the total investment reduces (Murray, Dixon and Johnson 2013). Topic-5 The cost in the long-run is accumulated when firm changes level of production over time in response to predictable economic profits or losses. There are mostly no fixed costs of production in the long-run. The long-run is considered as a planning and accomplishment stage for producers. The combinations of outputs that are produced by a firm mostly analyze the present and predictable condition of the market in order to make decision related to production. Costs under long-run indicates to a period during which all inputs can be differed (Varian 2014). On the other hand, in the short-run, costs are accrued in real time all through the process of production. There is no impact of fixed costs on short-run costs however; variable costs and revenues affect the short-run costs. Based on the variable cost and the rate of production, the short-run costs get increased or decreased. Under the short-run costs, output is zero whereas; the cost is always positive as the fixed cost is incurred regardless of output. Examples of such costs include reduction charges, rent of land as well as loan interest. These type of costs are also referred to as unavoidable contractual costs as they stay contractually fixed and cannot be neglected in the short-run. The major differences between costs in the short run and long run are that in the long-run, there are no fixed factors. However, in the short-run, there are both fixed and variable factors. The general level of price adjusts completely to the state of the economy in the long-run, however; in the short-run the general level of price does not always adjust due to the reduced period of time (Allcott and Rogers 2014). Figure 4: The relationship between long-run and short-run costs (Source: Created by Author) Topic-6 Market structure is defined as a particular combination of features that determines the type of competition as well as pricing in the market. Monopolistic competition is one of the major type of market structure that takes place when there are several sellers who are attempting to be different from each other. Another type of market structure is that of oligopoly under which the market is operated by a small number of firms that controls the majority of the market share together. On the other hand, under natural monopoly, a firm is able to provide the entire market demand at a lower cost. The imperfectly competitive market structure is almost similar to the realistic market circumstances where monopolistic competition, oligopolists as well as monopoly exists. The major features of the major market structure types are as follows: Number of firms in the market: Under perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition market structures are ordered by several sellers from very large number of sellers to just a single seller (Dunne et al. 2013). The degree of equivalence of product: Under oligopoly market structure, firms sell either an equivalent or a differentiated commodity. However, firms under perfect competition and monopoly market structure, always sell an equivalent commodity whereas; under monopolistic market structure firms always sell differentiated commodities. Largest firms and their market share: A single firm has full share of market under pure monopoly. On the other hand, under oligopoly market structure, there is less number of firms, which have majority of market share. Lastly, under perfect competition, the market share of a single firm is insignificant. Barriers to Entry: Under perfect competition, monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic competition, market structures are characterized by severity of barriers to entry. Pricing: Under monopolistic market structure, firms have insignificant control over price due to differentiation of product as well as advertisement. However, the control over price relies on whether the firm is selling an equivalent or a differentiated product, under monopolistic competition (Stiglitz and Rosengard 2015). Case Study As per the case, the demand for apartments will be relatively inelastic as there are hardly any substitutes for the apartments in this area. However, it is also argued that demand can also be relatively elastic due to the fact that rent is a high proportion of the income of the renter. As a result, an increase in rent will make the renters leave the city on the whole or stay on the streets. The supply of apartments will be comparatively inelastic. According to the case study, the area is defined as a low-income area and there is less probability to avail free lands. As a result, the quantity supplied of apartments will increase in a negligible way. Similarly, the apartment owners will not make any investment in low-income areas with increase in rents (Havranek, Irsova and Janda 2012). Figure 5: Supply and Demand (Source: Created by Author) P denotes the initial equilibrium price and both the demand and supply curve is relatively steeper. If the government decides to provide a building subsidy, it will indicate a fall in costs of production. As a result, supply is likely to increase with lower costs of production. This will in turn create surplus that will indulge the apartment owners to minimize the rents. Figure 6: Shift of the supply curve (Source: Created by Author) The graph shows that the quantity supplied of apartments will increase. In other words, the supply curve shifts towards right from S1 to S2. As a result, price also falls from P to P1 and quantity gets increased from Q to Q1. On the other hand, if demand is perfectly inelastic in that case, the greatest impact will be the reduction in rents. This in turn increases the quantity supplied of the apartments by only a negligible amount. This helps the renters and the owners of the apartments to gain from the program. However, in this scenario the renters gain the maximum profit. References Allcott, H. and Rogers, T., 2014. The short-run and long-run effects of behavioral interventions: Experimental evidence from energy conservation.The American Economic Review,104(10), pp.3003-3037. Bowen, W.G. and Sosa, J.A., 2014.Prospects for faculty in the arts and sciences: A study of factors affecting demand and supply, 1987 to 2012. Princeton University Press. Deng, X., Kang, J.K. and Low, B.S., 2013. Corporate social responsibility and stakeholder value maximization: Evidence from mergers.Journal of Financial Economics,110(1), pp.87-109. Dunne, T., Klimek, S.D., Roberts, M.J. and Xu, D.Y., 2013. Entry, exit, and the determinants of market structure.The RAND Journal of Economics,44(3), pp.462-487. Havranek, T., Irsova, Z. and Janda, K., 2012. Demand for gasoline is more price-inelastic than commonly thought.Energy Economics,34(1), pp.201-207. Murray, A.L., Dixon, H. and Johnson, W., 2013. Spearman's law of diminishing returns: A statistical artifact?.Intelligence,41(5), pp.439-451. Phlips, L., 2014.Applied Consumption Analysis: Advanced Textbooks in Economics(Vol. 5). Elsevier. Real, L.A., 2013. On Uncertainty and the Law of Diminishing Returns in.Limits to action: The allocation of individual behavior, p.37. Stiglitz, J.E. and Rosengard, J.K., 2015.Economics of the Public Sector: Fourth International Student Edition. WW Norton Company. Varian, H.R., 2014.Intermediate Microeconomics: A Modern Approach: Ninth International Student Edition. WW Norton Company.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Psychosocial Issues in the Health Care of Children and Young People Essay Example

Psychosocial Issues in the Health Care of Children and Young People Essay R Psychosocial Issues in the Health Care of Children and Young people. A case study discussing the application and analysis of theories applicable to the psychological care of and child and their family. A case study discussing the application and analysis of theories applicable to the psychological care of and child and their family. I’m going to discuss a case study of a child named Jake. The name has been changed to comply with NMC confidentiality (Nursing and Midwifery Council 2012). Jake is four, and has been admitted to hospital due to a head injury. He also suffers from Asthma. The story behind this accident is vague and this family had previously contact with social services for child protection issues and the suspicion of abuse. This essay will consider the psychological effects this abuse may have on Jake; it will not discuss the actual reporting of the abuse. Jake is at an age where he requires psychological support and interaction to enable his development; Piaget demonstrated this though his Theory of Cognitive Development. Piaget believed that children go through a multiple number of stages of development and move from one stage to another once they achieve specific developmental milestones (Oakley 2004). This is backed up by Ericson’s stages of psychosocial development. He believed each stage of development has a specific conflict that the child has to overcome before moving to the next stage. If a child is unable to successfully overcome a particular conflict, the child will remain stuck at that stage until they are able to resolve that issue (Shaffer 2005). We will write a custom essay sample on Psychosocial Issues in the Health Care of Children and Young People specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Psychosocial Issues in the Health Care of Children and Young People specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Psychosocial Issues in the Health Care of Children and Young People specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It is thought that in order to move through these stages children need stimulation, encouragement and love from those around them. This will allow them build their trust, confidence and sense of security overall helping them successfully develop psychologically, in the form of social skills, cognitive and emotional development. In this case Jake may not have had the opportunity for this development due to possible neglect and abuse. He is less likely to be encouraged and may be anxious and insecure with a lack of trust in all adults. This means he may not thrive and will be ‘stuck’ at Piaget and Ericson’s development stages (Wadsworth 2004). There are many psychological theories and explanations that can be applied to this case with Jake, due to these disruptive and uneasy first few years of his life. Jake is very likely to have experienced a lot of stress. Stress can be defined as physical, mental, or emotional factor that affect the functioning of the body (Weller 2009). It becomes a problem when stress reactions are so severe that the child is unable to handle them effectively, which could apply to Jake. This stress experienced from abuse starts as a daily hassle, but can lead to more long term chronic stress (Thomas 2007). Jake is currently experiencing both types of stress, firstly due to the chronic stress of abuse and secondly the additional stress of coming into hospital. Being only four he is not old enough to manage stress or understand what he’s going though, therefore it’s likely to have a huge effect on him and his development as he can’t manage it effectively. At this age, this stress response allows the child to gain control in the short term yet not manage the long term stress. He is likely to express extreme behaviors in order to cope including, withdrawal, denial and impulsive acting out. These are defense mechanisms, which are ineffective in the long term, and lead to a more extreme way to cope, this could be shown by, panic, depression, self-harm and refusal to play with his peers (Kostelnik 1998). This is the type of coping mechanism a boy of Jake’s age is likely to express. Stress is said to be divided into three different ‘types. Positive stress, this is experienced in everyday life and is essential for development such as meeting new people or going to a new school. Tolerable stress causes more distress but is short lived, such as the death of a loved one. The third is toxic stress; this is what Jake is experiencing as a result of the abuse he is experiencing. If toxic stress is sustained over a long period of time the stress response system gets activated for the equivalent amount of time. This can lead to permanent changes in the development of the brain. Toxic stress is caused by abuse or neglect. (Shonkoff 2000). Biological Psychologists have also found a correlation between toxic stress and bodily development (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child 2004). Examples of this include impairment of the brain circuits, which can result in a smaller brain size, as well as the hormones released due to toxic stress damaging parts of the brain responsible for memory and learning. In Jakes case, this type of stress he is experiencing could influence his learning and development as he goes into adulthood, however, this is a correlation; cause and effect cannot be established (Middlebrooks 2008). Stress can have a large influence on the health of the child. A stressed child will firstly show outward signs of stress, these will include being upset, crying, whilst having little trust in adults. Stress is also likely to have an influence upon development including children’s physical, psychological, emotional well-being as well as their ability to concentrate and learn (Thomas 2007). Jake’s behavior shows that he is experiencing anxiety; so he is therefore expressing symptoms such as nausea, racing heart rate and muscle pain. It is known that the long term effects of anxiety can also influence his immune system, this is due to the levels of stress hormones released (Glaser 2008). His body is constantly in the ‘fight or flight’ mode, which is due to the level of stress hormone corticosteroids and adrenaline being released. This focuses the body’s attention away from systems, including the immune system, making him more susceptible to illness (Selye 1997). The physical abuse and limited nurturance that Jake is experiencing could also be linked to chronic impairment; this could explain why Jake has asthma. A study carried out by Coogan found childhood abuse causes stress that leads to â€Å"physiological consequences. † The stress of living in an abusive situation takes a toll on the body, specifically on the immune system and on airway development; this is evident in Jakes case (Coogan 2006). This stress is likely to also influence Jakes social development, which is an important development stage for a boy of Jakes age. If Jake has been neglected, his parents may have not helped him develop social skills and taught him how to interact with others, this will influence his speech development. When he starts school, this will have a big impact on his ability to interact with peers and teachers. It will also influence his ability to have friendships and learn to play with others as he is unable to interact with them. Jake is likely to get frustrated which could lead to signs of aggression as this is what he thinks is the ‘correct’ way to act towards others due to this early experience of abuse (Haskett 1999). Jakes role model will be his primary care givers of who are also likely to be his abusers. Even in this situation Jake will want to ‘be like’ these role models, unfortunately they are not showing him the correct way to behave. Their behaviors will be expressed by Jake too, which will lead to serious social problems. He will also be confused when he is told his behavior is not correct, as he doesn’t known any different, this can be frustrating for him and could lead to him becoming violent and in the long term effect his education (Smith 2004). As a result of Jakes poor development, he is likely to under-achieve in school and subsequently to have a low income as an adult. As a consequence of this he is also likely to have children at a very early age, and provide poor health care, nutrition and stimulation to his children, therefore contributing to poverty and further poor development. Research has also found that he is likely to demonstrate this abusive behavior onto his own children (World Health Organization 2009). The long-term effects of stress have been widely researched by psychologists. However, it is difficult to determine whether childhood stress was the route cause. The Nature/Nurture debate by Darwin is relevant to the impact of childhood experiences. Darwin questions whether the stress experienced during childhood lead to consequences in adulthood (Nurture) or if genetic makeup and traits have an impact (Nature) (Paris 2005). The long-term effects of stress were researched by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. They looked into the link between childhood stressors and adult health. They conducted a study on adverse childhood experiences (ACE), including abuse and neglect. They interviewed 170,000 participants and around one third stated they experienced an ACE during their childhood. The ACE Study uses the ACE Score; this calculated the total number of ACE respondents reported. The ACE Score is used to assess the total amount of stress during childhood as the number of ACE increase, the risk of health problems increases. Health problems include alcohol abuse, cardiac problems, depression and teenage pregnancy (Middlebrooks 2008). Children react to stress and learn to cope in many ways, including: defense mechanisms, such as denial, regression, withdrawal and impulsive acting-out. These stress responses can allow the child to temporarily gain a sense of control or balance. However, these defense mechanisms are generally not productive in the long-term and can lead to more serious stress responses, including, panic, self-harm and refusal to play with their peers (Kostelnik 1998). Therefore, support from the parents is necessary for children to learn how to respond to stress in a physically and emotionally healthy manner. Another appropriate theory in relation on Jake is attachment theory. This is referred to as the innate strong emotional bond between an infant and primary care giver (PCG), which is present in the long-term. Attachment is an important process, as children’s physical, emotional, and psychological development depends on attachments formed with the PCG. While the supply of food, clothing, and shelter is important, it is not enough to promote development. Loving care and attention are also needed if children are to grow into adults capable of forming healthy relationships with others. Attachment is the basis for a child’s understanding of themselves, the world and the people in it. This theory was developed by John Bowlby in 1969. This bond starts to form from birth and is usually with the child’s mother or father (Walker 2002). In the case of Jake, he is less likely to have formed this type of attachment with his parents. Children who have been abused have usually also experienced neglect and rejection. They have not formed the emotional bond due to not receiving positive care and attention from them, as they are punished or hurt by the people they spend most of their time with. Chronic experiences like this result in fear and insecurity, which then undermine the child’s ability to form attachment, as well as the child linking the attachment figure to pain and injury (Prior 2006). The attachment bond has several key elements. Attachment is turning to PCG to protect us and to manage our feelings, fears, anxieties, and distress as well as being a ‘safe base’. The loss or threat of loss of the person evokes distress. This first bond is thought by psychologists to form a working framework for future relationships. A successful relationship with the PCG during infancy will affect future relationships, whereas a poor relationship with the PCG during infancy is linked to emotional and behavioral problems later in life (Perry 2010). Mary Ainsworth looked into Bowlbys Attachment theory in more depth; she divided attachment up into different types and studied the effect this had on their psychological health and relationship formation, as well as how children responded to their PCG. The study involved observing children between the ages of 12 to 18 months responding to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mother (Ainsworth, 1978). Ainsworth concluded that there were three major styles of attachment: secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment. These early attachment styles have an influence upon behaviors in later life (Colin 2000). In the case with Jake, he is likely to be in the category of insecure-avoidant attachment to his PCG. In the strange situation an insecure-avoidant child will fail to develop any feelings of security from the attachment figure. Accordingly they exhibit difficulty moving away from the attachment figure to explore surroundings. When distressed they are difficult to soothe and are not comforted by the PCG. This is due to the extreme lack of trust in the PCG as well as not getting responsive, nurturing, consistent care in the early weeks and months of their lives They don’t know how to receive this reassuring care in a distressing situation, which is how Jake is likely to respond in this situation (Crittenden 2001). However this study was in an artificial environment so has low ecological validity, as well as it only showing the attachment towards one PCG, whom may not be the main attachment figure, the unusual environment may influence the child’s behavior also. For Jake multiple problems are likely to arise due to this disordered attachment in early life. Some issues are obvious such as development delays, such as language development, social behaviors and cognitive development, this is due to the early bond between child and PCG is not present which is a vital for development. Emotional functioning is usually also disordered in abused children, they maybe ‘too loving’ and hug virtual strangers, this is likely to be ‘safety seeking’ behavior to try to avoid further abuse (McPherson 2002). Children also mirror adult behavior. In this case of abused children, such as Jake, the children learn that this behavior is the ‘correct’ way to interact with others, causing problems in current and future social encounters. Another major problem with these children is aggression; this is thought to be due to lack of empathy and poor impulse control. Children like Jake do not understand others have feelings and the impact their actions may have on others. They are also likely to hurt animals, smaller children and siblings due to wanting the hurtful control their PCG has over them (Kail 2006). Based on current evidence, it is important that when children like Jake come into the healthcare setting they receive the appropriate care both physically and emotionally to make sure they are safe and their experience of coming into hospital causes as little distress as possible. Empathy and consideration should be expressed by the nurses looking after him. They need to meet his needs yet be careful ad he is likely to be hostile and have a lack of trust in any adults. He is also going to be unable to verbalize his feelings as well as adults can, due to not having their words to describe his fears and worries. Nurses need to take this into account and use different ways to allow Jake to discuss his worries, for example though play. Jake is also unable to take positive action towards managing stress when it arises, nurses should strive to relive this stress wherever possible and offer initiatives such as counseling to the children like Jake to help reduce this stress. Whilst Jake is in hospital it is important to reassure him he isn’t being punished for being ill. He may think that he has done something wrong, which is why he has been taken from his home and adults may be hurting him by the forms of injections and medication. This needs to be explained to Jake, so he gains trust in the medical staff, this can be done by making his time in hospital enjoyable and getting him involved. A new initiative has also been realized which teaches healthcare staff how to recognize children who come in suffering from abuse or neglect. This will help them build up a better picture of what is happening in the child’s life so they can alert social services if they think something might be wrong (Poulter 2012). In conclusion Jake’s situation has raised many psychological concerns about how his development is being influenced by his abusive relationship with his parents. This stress he is experiencing and the complicated attachment he has to his parents could also lead onto other psychological problems such as depression, social problems and maybe even become a risk to his health as well as extensive development problems. Nurses should work as part of a multi-disciplinary team with social services and Jakes parents to help protect Jake and his future. Ainsworth (1978). Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Solution. New Jersey: Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication . p. 45. Colin (2000). Human Attachment. 2nd ed. London: Temple University Press. p. 47-48. Crittenden. (2001). Child maltreatment and attachment theory. Available: http://www. patcrittenden. com/include/docs/Crittenden_Ainsworth_1989. pdf. Last accessed 25th March 2013. Haskett (1999). 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Available: http://www. nmc-uk. org/Nurses-and-midwives/Advice -by-topic/A/Advice/Confidentiality/. Last accessed 11th March 2013. Oakley . (2004). Piagets theory of cognitive development . In: Flanagan and Banyard Cognative Development . Sussex: Routledge. p. 13-20. Paris (2005). Nature and Nurture in Psychology. London: British Library Cataloging in Publication Data . p16. Patrica Coogan. (2006). Abuse During Childhood Linked to Adult-Onset Asthma. Available: http://www. sciencedaily. com/releases/2012/12/121207133240. htm. Last accessed 7th March 2013. Perry. (2010). What is Attachment. Bonding and Attachment in Maltreated Children. 1 (2), p. 3. Poulter. (2012). New child abuse alert system for hospitals . Available: http://www. dh. gov. uk/health/2012/12/abuse-alert-system/. Last accessed 25th March 2013. Prior (2006). Understanding Attachment Attachment Disorders. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. p. 35-40. Ronald Glaser (2008). Human Stress Immunity. 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